Currently, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory is war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. 179 of them have consolidated their climate proposals with official approval, including, for the time being, the United States. The only major emitters that have yet to formally accede to the agreement are Russia, Turkey and Iran. Developed countries have committed, under the UNFCCC, to support containment and adaptation efforts in developing countries. Under the Copenhagen and Cancun agreements, developed countries have pledged to mobilize $100 billion in public and private financing per year for developing countries by 2020. INDE has addressed the challenges of eradicating poverty while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. About 24% of the world`s population without access to electricity (304 million) lived in India. Nevertheless, the country planned to “reduce the intensity of its GDP emissions by 33-35% by 2030” from 2005 levels. The country has also attempted to buy about 40% of its electricity from renewable energy sources, not fossil fuels by 2030. INDC found that implementation plans would not be affordable from national resources: it estimated that it would take at least $2.5 trillion to implement climate change measures by 2030.
India would achieve this through the transfer of technology (transfer of capacity and equipment from the most developed countries to less developed countries [LDCs]) and international funding, including support from the Green Climate Fund (an end-to-end investment support program in low-emission technologies and the development of populations vulnerable to the effects of climate change). First, with a long-term temperature target (below 2oC or even 1.5c), a zero net emissions target for the second half of this century and a recommendation to achieve global emissions “as soon as possible” do not provide sufficient guidelines to plan for reduction efforts. There is no inclusive goal, such as a target of a % of renewable energy in the energy mix, a missed opportunity if we now know that 80% of the current fossil fuel reserves must remain in the ground to sufficiently limit climate change. Countries preferred this cowardly target of full decarbonisation, which represents one or one per cent of the global reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050. Due to the effects of the new global coronavirus pandemic in 2020, the UNFCCC has postponed most of its major climate events to 2021, including COP 26. The COVID 19 pandemic has also undermined countries` efforts to present new NDPs or NDPs that expire in 2020. On 12 December 2020, the fifth anniversary of the adoption of the Paris Agreement, the United Nations, France and the United Kingdom, the President of COP 26, will jointly host a virtual global climate summit. National governments are invited to present more ambitious climate targets, “green” recovery plans for covid 19, new funding pledges and long-term decarbonisation targets. In addition, countries are working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Hare notes that the poorest nations cannot make deep emission reductions without the long-promised funding and technical assistance of the world`s rich nations.
Watson agrees that developed countries have largely caused the climate problem and must support less developed countries. “We need everyone on board to solve this problem,” he says. We are always in the presence of leaders in international climate discussions. World heads of state and government conclude important details of the Paris Agreement, including how countries will report on progress in achieving their climate goals and launching a process to launch a new round of cycling